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Indian Philosophy (Sanskrit: Bhārtiya Darshan) deals with various philosophical thoughts of many several traditions those originated in the Indian subcontinent, including Hindu philosophy, Buddhist philosophy, and Jain philosophy. The common themes of all these philosophies are unity and diversity (advaita and dvaita) in their understanding, interpretation of the existence of reality, and explanation of the attainment of liberation (moksha).
They had been formulated mostly from 1,500 BC to a few centuries A.D. with critical investigations and creative ways of philosophically interpreting socio-political-economic issues of existential importance. Thus, thinkers of any tradition strongly viewed that philosophy as a study of practical necessity needs to be cultivated in order to understand 'how life can best be led?'.
The Indian philosophical systems are classified into two groups on the basis of the acceptance of Vedas; Orthodox and Heterodox System. The orthodox systems are: Vaisheshika, Nyāya, Sāmkhya, Yoga, Purva-Mimānsā, and Uttar-Mimānsā (Vedānta). All these systems encapsulate in three pairs, namely Nyāya-Vaisheshika, Yoga-Sāmkhya, Mimānsā-Vedānta. In each of these pairs, the first system is concerned with the practice and the second one is elucidated its theoretical bases. However, all these systems are discussed with a critical approach to their theories in this course. In addition to these, Chārvaka School, Jainism and Buddhism systems are analyzed as part of the heterodox system. Over and above, an introductory note to Indian Philosophy is placed at the beginning of the course.


A video course shall consist of 40 or more lectures with 1 hour duration per lecture.

Topics and Content

No. of Video Lectures

Introduction to Indian Philosophy:

    1. Brief Discussion on Veda and Upanishads.
    2. Origin of Indian Philosophy.


Charvaka Philosophy:

    1. Epistemology.
    2. Metaphysics.


Samkhya Philosophy:

  1. Metaphysics.
  2. Theory of Causation.
      • Prakṛti.
      • Purusa.
      • Evolution.
  3. Epistemology.
Bondage and Liberation.


Yoga Philosophy:

  1. Organization of the Yoga-Sutras.
  2. Psychology of Yoga.
      • Stages of Citta.
      • Forms of Citta.
      • Modifications of Citta.
      • Kinds of Klesas.
  3. The Eight-Fold Yoga.
  4. God and Liberation.


Nyaya Philosophy:

  1. Epistemology.
      • Perception (Pratyaksa).
      • Inference (Anumāna).
      • Comparison (Upamāna).
      • Testimony (Sabda).
  2. Theory of Causation (Asatkāryavāda).
  3. Self and Liberation.
  4. The Concept of God.


 Mimansa Philosophy:

  1. Epistemology.
      • Validity of Knowledge.
  2. Sources of Valid Knowledge (Pramāna).
      • Perception.
      • Inference.
      • Comparison.
      • Verbal Testimony.
      • Postulation (Arthapati).
      • Non-Apprehension (Anupalabdhi).
  3. Theories of Error (Khyativāda).
      • Akhyativāda.
      • Anirvacaniya Khytivāda.
      • Viparita-khyativāda.
  4. Metaphysics.
      • Theory of Causation.
  5. Nature of Self.
  6. God and Liberation.


 Vaisesika Philosophy:

    1. Metaphysics and the Categories.
      • Substance (Dravya).
      • Quality (Gua).
      • Action (Karma).
      • Generality (Sāmānya).
      • Particularity (Vaiśea).
      • Inherence (Samavāya).
      • Non-existence (Abhāva).
    2. Epistemology.
    3. The Concept of God.
    4. Bondage and Liberation.


Buddhist Philosophy:

    1. Epistemology.
      • Dependent Origination.
    2. Four Noble Truths.
    3. Eight Fold Paths.
    4. Ethics.
    5. Karma and Rebirth.
    6. Liberation.


Jaina Philosophy:

    1. Syādavāda.
    2. Anekāntavāda.
    3. Ethics.
    4. Karma and Liberation.


Total Number of Lectures

42(Forty Two)

  1. Barlingay, S.S. (1965) A Modern Introduction to Indian Logic, Delhi: National Publishing House.

  2. Chatterjee, S.C. (1950) The Nyaya Theory of Knowledge, Calcutta: University of Calcutta Press.

  3. Chattejee, S.G. and Datta, D.M. (1960) An Introduction to Indian Philosophy, Calcutta: University of Calcutta Press.

  4. Muller, F.M. (1928) The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy, London: Longmans Green and Co. Publication.

  5. Sharma, C. (1964) A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass Publication.


  1. Journal of Indian Philosophy

  1. Encyclopaedia of Britannica

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