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Course Co-ordinated by IIT Roorkee
Dr. R.D. Garg
IIT Roorkee


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This course introduces the fundamental and advanced concepts, and applications of Global Positioning System (GPS) to the undergraduate and postgraduate students of civil engineering.


Definitions and fundamentals of Geodesy, Introduction to GPS- Transit, NAVSTAR GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO; GPS segments- space, control and user, GPS codes- C/A, P, GPS receivers, GPS Orbits, GPS errors and accuracy, GPS Observables, GPS Survey Methods- static vs kinematic, single point vs relative positioning, GPS Modernization plans, GPS Applications.



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Introduction to Geodesy:

Definitions and fundamentals of Geodesy, Earth, Geoid and Ellipsoid of rotation, Reference surface, Geodetic systems, Indian Geodetic System, Coordinate systems and transformation.



Introduction to GPS:

History: Transit, Timation, NAVSTAR GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO.

GPS design objectives and details of segmentsspace, control and user, blocks of GPS- Block I, II/IIA, IIR Satellites, IIF, Advantages and current limitations of GPS, Status of GPS Surveying, Applications.



GPS Signal structure:

Carriers, GPS codes: C/A, P, navigational message, GPS receiver: Types and Structure of receivers, Principles of GPS position fixing: Pseudo ranging.



GPS Orbits:

Determination of GPS satellite coordinates, Types of ephemerides, GPS data formats: RINEX, SP3.



GPS errors and accuracy:

Satellite dependent: Ephemeris errors and orbit perturbations, Forces on GPS satellites, Effects of orbital bias, Types of satellite ephemerides, Satellite clock bias, Selective availability.

Receiver dependent: Receiver clock bias, Cycle slip, Selective availability (SA).

Observation medium dependent: Ionospheric errors, Tropospheric errors.

Station dependent: Multipath, Station coordinates.

Satellite geometry based measures: Geometry dependent (Dilution of Precision: DOP), User Equivalent Range Error UERE.



GPS Observables:

Introduction to adjustment computations, Observation equations, Code-based, Carrier phase-based.

Navigational solution: Code/phase based, Data Processing Models, Models for single point positioning and relative/differential positioning, Data combinations, Ambiguity resolution, Single difference, Double difference, Triple difference, Static relative positioning, Kinematic relative positioning.



GPS Survey Methods:

Single Point or Point Vs Relative, Static Vs Kinematic, Real time Vs Post mission.

Practical GPS survey field procedures: Code- and Carrier-based positioning, Accuracy and recording time.

Preparation of GPS surveys: Setting up an observation plan, Practical aspects of field observations, Observation strategies, Network design.



GPS Modernization plans:

Future developments in GPS, Introduction to GLONASS and GALILEO systems.



GPS Applications:

Geodetic control surveys, Cadastral surveys, Photogrammetry, Remote sensing, Engineering and monitoring.

Military applications, Geographical Information System, Vehicle tracking and car navigation, LBS and special applications.



  1. Principles of Surveying.

  1. P. R. Wolf, and C. D. Ghilani, 1997. Adjustment Computations: Statistics and Least Squares in Surveying and GIS, Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, New York (USA), pages 564.

  2. J. V. Sickle, 2001. GPS for Land Surveyors Publisher: Ann Arbor Press, Michigan(USA), pages 284.

  3. B. Hofmann-Wellenhof, H. Lichtenegger and J. Collins, 1994. Global Positioning System: Theory and Practice, Publisher: Springer, Berlin (Germany), pages 355.

  4. Gunter Seeber, 2003. Satellite Geodesy, Publisher: Walter de Gruyter, Berlin (Germany), pages 612.

  5. A. Leick, 2004. GPS Satellite Survey (2nd ed.), Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, New York (USA), pages 429.

  6. Xu Guochang, 2007. GPS: Theory, Algorithms and Applications, Publisher: Springer, Berlin (Germany), pages 353.

  7. J.V. Sickle, 2004. Basic GIS Coordinates, Publisher: CRC Press LLC, pages 173.

  8. W. Schofield, 2001. Engineering Surveying (5th ed.), Publisher: Butterworth- Heineemann, pages 521.

  9. Agrawal, N. K, 2006. Essentials of GPS, Publisher: Spatial Networks, pages 45.

  10. Bradford W. Parkinson, James J. Spiker Jr, 1996. Global Positioning System: Theory and Applications, Vol I and II, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics: Washington.

  11. Strang, Gilbert and Borre, Kai, 1997. Linear Algebra, Geodesy, and GPS, Publisher: Wellsley-Cambridge: Wellsley, pp. 622.



  1. Journals - GPS World, Coordinates.

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