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Course Co-ordinated by IIT Madras
Prof Steven LaValle


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Fundamentals of virtual reality systems, including geometric modeling, transformations, graphical rendering, optics, the human vision, auditory, and vestibular systems, interface design, human factors, developer recommendations, and technological issues.

Module No:


Module I:

  1. Course mechanics
  2. Goals and VR definitions
  3. Historical perspective
  4. Birds-eye view (general)
  5. Birds-eye view (general), contd
  6. Birds-eye view (hardware)
  7. Birds-eye view (software)
  8. Birds-eye view (sensation and perception)


Module II: Geometry of Virtual Worlds

  1. Geometric modeling
  2. Transforming models
  3. Matrix algebra and 2D rotations
  4. 3D rotations and yaw, pitch, and roll
  5. 3D rotations and yaw, pitch, and roll, contd
  6. Axis-angle representations
  7. Quaternions
  8. Converting and multiplying rotations
  9. Converting and multiplying rotations, contd
  10. Homogeneous transforms
  11. The chain of viewing transforms
  12. Eye transforms
  13. Eye transforms, contd
  14. Canonical view transform
  15. Viewport transform
  16. Viewport transform, contd


Module III:Light and Optics

  1. Three interpretations of light
  2. Refraction
  3. Simple lenses
  4. Diopters
  5. Imaging properties of lenses
  6. Lens aberrations
  7. Optical system of eyes


Module IV:
Visual Physiology

  1. Photoreceptors
  2. Sufficient resolution for VR
  3. Light intensity
  4. Eye movements
  5. Eye movements, contd
  6. Eye movement issues for VR
  7. Neuroscience of vision


Module V: Visual Perception

  1. Depth perception
  2. Depth perception, contd
  3. Motion perception
  4. Frame rates and displays
  5. Frame rates and displays contd


Module VI:Tracking Systems

  1. Overview
  2. Orientation tracking
  3. Tilt drift correction
  4. Yaw drift correction
  5. Tracking with a camera
  6. Perspective n-point problem
  7. Filtering
  8. Lighthouse approach


Module VII: Visual Rendering

  1. Visual Rendering-Overview
  2. Visual Rendering-overview, contd
  3. Shading models
  4. Rasterization
  5. Pixel shading
  6. VR-specific problems
  7. Distortion shading
  8. Post-rendering image warp


Module VIII: Audio

  1. Physics and physiology
  2. Auditory perception
  3. Auditory localization
  4. Rendering
  5. Spatialization and display
  6. Combining other senses


Module IX: Interfaces

  1. Interfaces -overview
  2. Locomotion
  3. Manipulation
  4. System control
  5. Social interaction
  6. Evaluation of VR Systems


Basic maths and exposure to engineering

  2. George Mather, Foundations of Sensation and Perception: Psychology Press; 2 edition, 2009.
  3. Peter Shirley, Michael Ashikhmin, and Steve Marschner, Fundamentals of Computer Graphics, A K Peters/CRC Press; 3 edition, 2009.

  • Doug A. Bowman, Ernst Kruijff, Joseph J. LaViola, and Ivan Poupyrev, 3D User Interfaces, Addison-Wesley, 2005.
  • K. S. Hale and K. M. Stanney, Handbook on Virtual Environments, 2nd edition, CRC Press, 2015.

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