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Course Co-ordinated by IIT Kharagpur
Prof. M.K.Panigrahi
IIT Kharagpur


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This course may be looked as a first level course on Mineral Resources of the Earth that has the following broad components:

Conceptualization of ore formation as intimately linked to fundamental earth processes operating at different scales; parallelism between evolution of the crust and different deposit types through geologic ages; fundamental processes (magmatism, sedimentation, weathering/erosion, fluid activities) and morphology of resultant deposits

Use of basic knowledge of ore geology in mineral exploration, case studies of discovery of some world class deposits; appraisal of mineral resources.

Economics of exploitation of mineral resources international trade, price and policies

Environmental impact of resource exploitation




Introduction; Space - time distribution of mineral deposits; Spatial distribution of mineral deposits in the context of present day global tectonics.


Magmatic processes, Characteristics and Morphology of Deposits resulting from magmatism


Sedimentary processes characteristics and morphology of resultant deposits


Hydrothermal processes - characteristics of hydrothermal ore fluids, sources, solubility of metals and mechanism of transport and deposition from fluids, characteristics of hydrothermal deposits


Hydrothermal processes associated with felsic magmatism, sedimentary basins, metamorphism, volcanism on the sea floor and volcanic islande resultant deposits and their morphology


Introduction to Mineral Exploration the four stage architecture (reconnaissance, detailed survey, target identification, exploratory drilling), Mineral deposits and mineral resource potentials of India


Geological, geochemical and geophysical methods of mineral exploration, Application of remote sensing in mineral exploration


Case studies of discoveries of important deposits across the world.(Gold, Diamond, porphyry copper, VMS, Uranium)


Economic classification of Mineral Resources; Elements of Mineral Economics; demand-supply relationships and changing global scenario, international trade, policies and cartels,


National Mineral Policy and Law of the Sea, Mineral resources in National Economy.


Mineral deposit project evaluation; estimation of ore reserve (conventional and geostatistical methods),


Environmental Impact of Mineral Resource Exploitation exploration, mining, processing and post-processing scenarios.

Introductory Geology (Physical Geology) Course

Ore Geology and Industrial Minerals by Antony Evans; Economic Mineral Deposits by M L Jensen and Alan M Bateman; Introduction to Ore Forming Processes by Laurence Robb (any other relevant UG level Text Book may be referred) 



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