Design Example


Municipal wastewaters contain phosphorus in three different forms: 1. organic phosphorus, 2. orthophosphorus, and 3. condensed phosphorus. When treating wastewater biologically, bacteria assimilate orthophosphate during their growth process. However, condensed phosphates must first undergo enzymatic hydrolysis to the ortho form before they can be assimilated. In biological wastewater treatment, assimilation is the only means by which phosphorus is removed, except, possibly, when the water has an unusual chemical makeup and precipitation onto biological flocs occurs.