Humanities and Social Sciences
Aspects of Western Philosophy (Video)
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Aspects of Western Philosophy
Greek Philosophy: Ionians, Pythagoras, Parmenides, Heraclitus and Democritus
Sophists, Socrates; philosophy of man; relativism and subjectivism; the idea of good
Platos idealism: theory of ideas
Plato: theory of knowledge, method of dialectic; theory of soul
Aristotles criticism of Platonic idealism and the concepts of Form and Matter
Aristotles theory of causation; potentiality and actuality
Medieval philosophy: St. Augustine and the Problem of evil; St. Thomas Aquinass concepts of faith and reason; proofs for the existence of God.
Modern Philosophy: mail characteristic features; renaissance and scientific revolution; rationalism and empiricism: main features.
Descartes: the method in philosophy; the concepts of doubt and indubitable knowledge.
Descartes: the mind-body dualism; the concept of God and proofs for Gods existence
Spinoza: the concepts of Substance, attributes and modes.
Spinozas pantheism-God and nature
Leibniz: Monadology; the mind-body problem revisited; concept of God; the concept of pre-established harmony
The empiricism of John Locke: ideas and their classification; refutation of innate ideas
John Locke: theory of knowledge; concept of substance; the primary and secondary qualities
Berkeley: the refutation of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities, immaterialism
Berkeleys critique of abstract ideas, esse est percipi, the problem of solipsism; God and self
Hume : Impressions and ideas, knowledge concerning relations of ideas and knowledge concerning matters of fact, induction and causality.
The external world and the self, personal identity, rejection of metaphysics, scepticism, reason and the passions.
Critical Philosophy: characteristic features; kantd objectives: the classification of judgements, possibility of synthetic a priori judgements, the Copernican revolution
Kant: forms of sensibility, categories of understanding; the process of knowledge acquisition; phenomenon and noumenon,
The Ideas of Reason-soul, God and world as a whole; antinomies; rejection of speculative metaphysics.
Kants ethics; freedom and immortality, problems with Kant.
Hegel : The conception of Geist (spirit), the dialectical method, concepts of being, non-being and becoming,
Absolute idealism; consciousness, self consciousness and reason.
Karl Marx: historical materialism; the significance of the proletariat; the base structure-superstructure division.
Nietzsche : Critique of western culture, religion and morality; will to power; the idea of superman.
Linguistic turn in British philosophy: Russells logical atomism and the refutation of idealism.
Wittgenstein : early Wittgensteins conception of language and reality; the picture theory of meaning
Later Wittgensteins conception of language games and forms of life; meaning and use.
Logical positivism; against metaphysics and a scientific conception of philosophy; the limitation of logical positivism
Husserl : Phenomenology and the methods of reduction; the principle of intentionality.
Phenomenological reduction, eidetic reduction and transcendental reduction; transcendental subjectivity; the pure subject.
Heidegger : phenomenological hermeneutics; concept of Being; man as being-in-the-world; destruction of the western intellectual tradition.
Authentic and inauthentic existence; Truth as disclosure
Existentialism: main features; existence precedes essence; freedom and responsibility; finiteness and situatedness of human existence
Sartres conception of human existence; man is condemned to be free; rejection of essentialism
The concept of being-in-itself, being-for-itself and being-for-others
Postmodernism: major trends and chief characteristic features; conceptions of human subject; different postmodern approaches
Deconstruction, feminism, discourse theory etc.
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