Principles of Surveying

The fundamental principles upon which the surveying is being carried out are

  • working from whole to part.
  • after deciding the position of any point, its reference must be kept from at least two permanent objects or stations whose position have already been well defined.

The purpose of working from whole to part is

  • to localise the errors and
  • to control the accumulation of errors.

This is being achieved by establishing a heirarchy of networks of control points. The less precise networks are established within the higher precise network and thus restrict the errors. To minimise the error limit, highest precise network (primary network) Figure 1.1 of control points are established using the most accurate / precise instruments for collection of data and rigorous methods of analysis are employed to find network parameters. This also involves most skilled manpower and costly resources which are rare and cost intensive. Further elaboration has been done in Lesson 3 under "Overview of Land Surveying".

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