Chapter 1: Modelling Power System Components

Introduction of Modern Power System

Modern electric power systems have three separate components - generation, transmission and distribution. Electric power is generated at the power generating stations by synchronous alternators that are usually driven either by steam or hydro turbines. Most of the power generation takes place at generating stations that may contain more than one such alternator-turbine combination. Depending upon the type of fuel used, the generating stations are categorized as thermal, hydro, nuclear etc. Many of these generating stations are remotely located. Hence the electric power generated at any such station has to be transmitted over a long distance to load centers that are usually cities or towns. This is called the power transmission. In fact power transmission towers and transmission lines are very common sights in rural areas.

Modern day power systems are complicated networks with hundreds of generating stations and load centers being interconnected through power transmission lines. Electric power is generated at a frequency of either 50 Hz or 60 Hz.

In an interconnected ac power system, the rated generation frequency of all units must be the same. In India the frequency is 50 Hz.