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Prof. C. Balaji
IIT Madras

 

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Introduction:    The components of the climate system- oceans, cryosphere, terrestrial biosphere, earth’s crust and mantle, Role of various components in climate, Hydrological cycle, Carbon cycle, Brief history of climate and the earth system
Atmospheric thermodynamics:  Gas laws, Hydrostatic equation, First law, Adiabatic processes, Water vapour in air, Static stability, Second law and entropy, atmospheric dispersion
Radiative transfer: EM spectrum, Radiation laws, Physics of absorption, emission and scattering, Radiative transfer in atmosphere, Planetary radiation budget, Introduction to Remote Sensing
Atmospheric Dynamics: Equations of motion, Geostrophic approximation, Atmospheric General Circulation
Atmospheric Boundary Layer:  Surface energy balance and bulk aerodynamic formulae- Vertical structure
Climate dynamics: Present day climate- Climate variability – Climate sensitivity and feedback – Global warming – Climate monitoring and prediction

Lecture Number

Lecture Topic

Introduction and Earth system

1

Atmosphere-A brief survey (Pressure, Temperature and Chemical composition)

2

Atmosphere-A brief survey contd … (Vertical structure of the atmosphere)

3

The Earth system - Oceans

4

The  Earth system – Marine biosphere

5

The Earth system – Hydrological cycle

6

The Earth system – Carbon cycle

7

The Earth system – Carbon in the oceans and Earth's crust

Atmospheric Thermodynamics

8

Atmospheric Thermodynamics- Introduction

9

The hydrostatic equation

10

Hypsometric equation and pressure at sea level

11

Basic Thermodynamics

12

Concept of air parcel and dry adiabatic lapse rate

13

Potential temperature and problems

14

Skew-T ln-P chart

15

Lifting Condensation Level (LCL)

16

Saturated adiabatic and Psedo-adiabatic processes

17

Saturated adiabatic lapse rate

18

Tutorial on using Skew-T ln-P chart

19

Normand's rule and static stability

20

Stability contd... (Brunt-Vaisala frequency)

21

Conditional and convective stability

22

Second law of Thermodynamics – Clausius-Clayperon equation

Radiative transfer

23

Atmospheric radiation- Introduction

24

Quantitative description of radiation 

25

Concept of Black body and Stefan-Boltzmann law

26

Radiative properties of non-black surfaces

27

Kirchoff's law

28

Physics of Absorption, Emission and Scattering in the atmosphere

29

Physics of Absorption, Emission and Scattering in the atmosphere Contd...

30

Equation of Radiative Transfer (RTE)

31

Radiative cooling rates

Atmospheric Dynamics

32

Atmospheric Dynamics – An Introduction

33

Hydrostatic and Geostrophic approximations

34

Cyclostrophic approximation and Thermal winds

35

Tutorial on atmospheric dynamics

Atmospheric boundary layer

36

Surface energy balance and bulk aerodynamic formulae

37

Vertical structure

Climate Dynamics

38

Climate Dynamics – Introduction

39

Climate sensitivity and feedback

40

Transient and equilibrium response

41

Tutorial  on climate dynamics and feedback

42

Summary

  1. Atmospheric science – An Introductory Survey, J.M.Wallace and P.V.Hobbs, 2nd Edition, Academic Press, London, 2006.
  2. The Physics of Atmospheres, John Houghton, 3rd Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002.
  3. An Introduction to Atmospheric Thermodynamics, A.A.Tsonis, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007.
  4. An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, J.R.Holton, 4th Edition, Academic Press, London, 2004.
  5. A Climate Modelling Primer, K.McGuffie and A.Henderson-Sellers, 3rd Edition, John-wiley, New York, 2004.
    Climate Change 2007 – The Physical Science Basis, IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007.


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