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The course will give an overview of different types of ocean structures that are deployed in sea for exploiting oil, gas and minerals. It will provide a detailed understanding of various types of structural systems/forms that are constructed at different water depths for oil and gas exploration, coastal protection etc. Brief overview of various environmental loads acting of these structures will be discussed along with the structural action to counteract the encountered loads. The course will cover different types of materials that are used in the construction of ocean structures in marine environment along with their construction methodologies in brief. Guidelines associated with selection of materials for marine environment, problems associated with the material behavior in marine environment and various protection methods will also be highlighted. The course also shall introduce inspection and testing methods of ocean structures, repair and rehabilitation processes. The course is supported by lot of tutorials and FAQs to make the reader to understand the described concepts.

Introduction to different types of ocean structures- near shore structures, different structural systems of ocean structures namely: fixed, floating, compliant type, semi-submersibles etc.
Types of environmental loads- structural action of ocean structures- planning guidelines and design principles- regulations and codes of practice- foundation of ocean structures- sea bed anchors- dredging methods and equipments.
Different materials for marine applications: metals, concrete and other materials for marine environment- their characteristics, properties and selection guidelines. Problems associated with deterioration of materials in marine environment, their remedies and protection methods. Codes of practice.
Inspection and testing of marine structures- methods and equipments- non-destructive techniques. Repair and rehabilitation of marine structures. structural health monitoring of marine structures.

 

Module No.

Topics

No. of lectures

1

  1. Different types of ocean structures
  2. Various structural systems deployed for shallow, medium, deep and ultra-deep waters
  3. Various environmental loads acting on offshore structures
  4. Structural action exercised by offshore structures
  5. Different types of coastal structures

 

12

2

  1. Brief outline of planning of ocean structures
  2. Brief introduction to design of ocean structures
  3. Towing, launching and installation of offshore structures and pipe lines
  4. Regulations and codes of practice
  5. Foundation systems for ocean structures
  6. Sea bed anchors
  7. Dredging methods and equipments

 

 

9

3

  1. Materials for marine applications
  2. Different types of materials and their applications in marine environment
  3. Properties and selection of materials for marine environment
  4. Corrosion and corrosion protection methods
  5. Introduction to composites for marine environment
  6. Codes of practice for materials in marine environment

 

 

15

4

  1. Inspection and testing of ocean structures
  2. Introduction to Non-destructive testing
  3. Repair and rehabilitation of marine structures
  4. Planning guidelines for maintenance of ocean structures
  5. Structural health monitoring of ocean structures

 

4

 

                                                                                                 Total               

40 lectures

 

a) Books and Executive reports

  1. API-RP2A. 1989. Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms: 18th edn. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C.
  2. BS6235. 1982. Code of Practice for Fixed Offshore Structures: British Standards Institution, London.
  3. CAP 437. 2010. Offshore Helicopters landing areas: Guidance on Standards: 6th edn. Civil Aviation Authority, U.K.
  4. Chakrabarti, S. K. 1987. Hydrodynamics of Offshore Structures: Computational Mechanics.
  5. Chakrabarti, S. K. 1990. Non-linear method in offshore engineering, Elsevier Science Publisher, The Netherlands.
  6. Chakrabarti, S. K. 1994.Offshore Structure Modeling: World Scientific.
  7. Clauss, G. T. et al. 1992. Offshore Structures, Vol 1 - Conceptual Design and Hydromechanics: Springer, London.
  8. Dawson, T. H., 1983. Offshore Structural Engineering: Prentice-Hall Inc.
  9. DNV 1982. Rules for the Design, Construction and Inspection of Offshore Structures: Det Norske Veritas, Oslo.
  10. DOE-OG. 1985. Offshore Installation: Guidance on Design and Construction: U.K., Dept. of Energy, London.
  11. Gerwick, B.C.Jr. 1986. Construction of Offshore Structures: John Wiley, New York.
  12. Graff, W.J. 1981. Introduction to offshore structures: Design, fabrication and installation: Gulf Publishing Co, Tokyo.
  13. Graff, W.J. 1981. Introduction to Offshore Structures: Gulf Publishing Co., Houston.
  14. Helvacioglu. I. H and Incecik. A 2004. Dynamics of double articulated towers, Integrity of offshore structures- 4: Elsevier.
  15. Hiroshi Iwaski. 1981. Preliminary design Study of Tension Leg platform: MIT university.
  16. HSE. 2010. Offshore Helideck design guidelines: Health & Safety Executive. John Burt Associates Ltd, UK.
  17. Hsu, H.T. 1981. Applied Offshore Structural Engineering: Gulf Publishing Co., Houston.
  18. Jeom Kee Paik and Anil Kumar Thayamballi. 2007. Ship-shaped offshore installations: Design, building and operations: Cambridge University Press.
  19. Mather, A. 2000. Offshore Engineering: an Introduction, 2nd edn: Witherby
  20. NPD 1985. Regulation for Structural Design of Load-bearing Structures Intended for Exploitation of Petroleum Resources: Norwegian Petroleum Directorate.
  21. OCS. 1980. Requirements for Verifying the Structural Integrity of OCS Platforms: United States Geologic Survey, National Centre, Reston, Virginia.
  22. Patel, M. H., 1989. Dynamics of offshore structures: Butterworths, London.
  23. Sadehi, K. 1989. Design and analysis of Marine structures: Khajeh Nasirroddin Tsi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
  24. Sadehi, K. 2001. Coasts, Ports and Offshore Structures Engineering: Power and Water University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
  25. Sarpkaya, T. and Isaacson, M. 1981. Mechanics of Wave Forces on Offshore Structures: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  26. Srinivasan Chandrasekaran and Subrata Kumar Bhattacharyya (2012). Analysis and Design of Offshore Structures with illustrated examples. Human Resource Development Center for Offshore and Plant Engineering (HOPE Center), Changwon National University Press, Republic of Korea ISBN: 978-89-963915-5-5.

b) Research papers

  1. Ahsan Kareem. 1985. Wind induced response analysis of Tension Leg Platforms. J. of Structural Eng. 111(1): 37-55.
  2. Anagnostopoulos, S.A. 1982. Dynamic Response of Offshore Structures to Extreme Waves including Fluid - Structure Interaction. Engr. Structures, 4: 179-185.
  3. Anil K. Chopra. 2003. Dynamics of structures: Theory and applications to earthquake Engineering: Pearson Education, Singapore
  4. Bar Avi. P 1999. Nonlinear Dynamic Response of a Tension Leg Platform, J. of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Eng, 121: 219-226.
  5. Bea, R.G. Xu, T., Stear, J. and Ramas, R. 1999. Wave Forces on Decks of Offshore Platforms. J. Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, 125(3):136-144.
  6. Bearman, P. W., Graham, J. M.R. and Mackwood, P. 1987. Experiments on the Christchurch bay compliant cylinder in the de-voorst wave tank: Report on SERC/MTD Project FLE04, Dept. Aeronautics, Imperial College, London.
  7. Bhattacharyya. S. K., Sreekumar. S and Idichandy. V. G. 2003. Coupled dynamics of Sea Star mini tension leg platform. Ocean Eng, 30: 709-737.
  8. Boaghe, O.M., Billings, S.A., Stansby, P.K. 1998. Spectral Analysis for Non-Linear Wave Forces. J. Applied Ocean Research, 20: 199-212.
  9. Booton. M., Joglekar. N and Deb. M 1987. The effect of tether damage on Tension Leg Platform Dynamics. J. of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Eng, 109: 186-192.
  10. Burrows, R., Tickell, R.G., Hames, D. and Najafian, G. 1992. Morison Wave Forces Co-efficient for Application to Random Seas. J. Applied Ocean Research, 19: 183-199.
  11. Chakrabarti, S. K. 1971. Nondeterministic Analysis of Offshore Structures, J. Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, 97.
  12. Chandrasekaran, S and Jain, A.K. 2002. Dynamic behavior of Square and Triangular TLPs under Regular Wave Loads. Ocean Engineering, 29(3): 279-315.
  13. Chandrasekaran. S and Jain. A. K. 2002b. Triangular configuration Tension leg platform behaviour under random sea wave loads, Ocean Eng. 29(13): 1895-1928.
  14. Chandrasekaran, S., Jain, A.K., Chandak, N. R. 2004. Influence of Hydrodynamic Coefficients in the Response behavior of Triangular TLPs in Regular Waves. Ocean Engineering, 31: 2319-2342.
  15. Chandrasekaran. S and Jain. A. K. 2004a. Aerodynamic behavior of offshore triangular Tension Leg Platforms, Proc. of ISOPE, Toulon, France, 564-569.
  16. Chandrasekaran. S, Jain. A. K, Chandak. N. R. 2004b. Influence of hydrodynamic coefficients in the response behavior of triangular TLPs in regular waves, Ocean Eng. 31(320): 2319-2342.
  17. Chandrasekaran. S, Jain, A.K. and Chandak. N.R. 2006a. Seismic analysis of offshore triangular tension leg platforms. International J. of Structural Stability and Dynamics. 6(1): 97-120.
  18. Chandrasekaran, S., Chandak, N. R and Gupta Anupam 2006b. Stability analysis of TLP tethers. Ocean Eng. 33(3): 471-482.
  19. Chandrasekaran. S, Jain. A. K, Chandak. N. R 2007a. Response behavior of triangular tension leg platforms under regular waves using Stokes nonlinear wave theory. J. of waterway, port, coastal and ocean Eng., ASCE. 133(3): 230-237.
  20. Chandrasekaran. S, Jain. A. K, Gupta. A and Srivastava. A 2007b. Response behavior of triangular tension leg platforms under impact loading, Ocean Eng.,34: 45-53.
  21. Chandrasekaran. S, Abhishek Sharma and Shivam Srivastava 2007c. Offshore triangular TLP behavior using dynamic Morison equation. J. of Structural Eng. 34(4): 291-296.
  22. Chandrasekaran. S, Gaurav 2008. Offshore triangular tension leg platform earthquake motion analysis under distinctly high sea waves. J. of Ships and Offshore Structures. 3(3): 173-184.
  23. Chen. X, Ding . Y, Zhang. J, Liagre. P, Neidzwecki and Teigen. P 2006. Coupled dynamic analysis of a mini TLP: Comparison with measurements, Ocean Eng. 33: 93-117.
  24. Chuel-Hyun Kim, Chang-HO Lee and Ja-Sam Goo 2007. A dynamic response analysis of tension leg platforms including hydrodynamic interaction in regular waves. Ocean Eng. 34: 1680-1689.
  25. Clauss, G.F., Birk, L. 1996. Hydrodynamic Shape Optimization of Large Offshore Structures. J. Applied Ocean Research, 18:157-171.
  26. Emil Simiu and Stefan D. Leigh 1984. Turbulent Wind and Tension Leg Platform Surge. J. of Structural Eng. 110(4): 785-802.
  27. Ertas. A and Eskwaro-Osire. S 1991. Effect of Damping and Wave Parameters on Offshore Structure under Random Excitation. Nonlinear Dynamics, 2: 119-136.
  28. Ertas. A, Lee. J-H 1989. Stochastic Response of Tension Leg Platform to Wave and Current Forces. J. of Energy Resources Technology,111: 221-230.
  29. Han S. Choi and Jack Y. K. Lou 1991. Nonlinear behavior of an articulated offshore loading platform. Applied Ocean Research, 13(2): 63-74.
  30. Haritos. N 1985. Modelling the response of Tension Leg Platforms to the effects of wind using simulated traces. Mathematics and computers in simulation. 27:231-240.
  31. Hsien Hua Lee and Wang Pei-Wen 2000. Dynamic behavior of tension-leg platform with net cage system subjected to wave forces. Ocean Eng. 28: 179-200.
  32. Inyeol Paik and Jose M. Roesset 1996. Use of Quadratic Transfer Functions to Predict Response of Tension Leg Platforms. J. of Eng. Mechanics. 122(9): 882-889.
  33. Issacson, M., Det St. Q. 1982. Non-Linear Wave Effects on Fixed and Floating Bodies. J. Fluid Mechanics, 120: 267-281.
  34. Jefferys. E. R. and Patel. M. H 1982. Dynamic Analysis Models of Tension Leg Platforms, J. of energy Resources Technology. 104: 217- 223.
  35. Kareem, A. 1983. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of compliant offshore platforms subjected to fluctuating winds. J. of wind Eng. and Industrial aerodynamics. 14: 345-356.
  36. Kareem, A. and Datton, C. 1982. Dynamic effects of wind on TLP. Proc. of Offshore Technology Conference. No. 4229(1):749-757.
  37. Kareem, A., Lu, P.C., Finnigan, T.D. and Liu, S.L.V. 1986. A wind tunnel investigation of aerodynamic loads on a typical TLP. Proc. of Offshore Technology Conference, No. 5173: 187-197.
  38. Kareem. A and Zhao. J 1994. Analysis of Non-Gaussian Surge Response of Tension Leg Platforms Under Wind Loads, J. of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Eng. 116: 13-144.
  39. Kobayashi. M, Shimada. K and Fujihira. T 1987. Study on Dynamic Responses of a TLP in Waves. J. of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Eng. 109: 61-66.
  40. Kurian. V. J., Gasim. M. A., Narayan. S. P and Kalaikumar. V 2008. Parametric Study of TLPs subjected to Random Waves. International Conference on Construction and Building Technology, 16-20 June, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 19: 213-222.
  41. Low. Y. M 2009. Frequency domain analysis of a tension leg platform with statistical linearization of the tendon restoring forces. Marine structures, 22: 480-503.
  42. Mekha B.Basim, Philip Johnson. C, Roesset. M Jose. 1996. Implication of Tendon Modeling on Nonlinear Response of TLP. J. of Structural Eng. 122(2): 142-149.
  43. Moe, G. and Verley, R.L.P. 1980. Hydrodynamic damping of offshore structures in wave and currents. Offshore Technology Conference, 12th Annual OTC, Houston, Texas, 37-44.
  44. Morison, J.R., O'Brien, M.P., Johanson, J.W., and Shaaf, S.A. 1950. The Forces Exerted by Surface Waves on Pile. Transactions AMIE, 189: 149-154.
  45. Nagamani. K and Ganapathy. C 2000. The dynamic response of a three leg articulate tower. Ocean Eng. 27: 1455-1471.
  46. Nazrul Islam and Suhail Ahmad 2003. Nonlinear Seismic Response of Articulated Offshore Tower. Defence Science J. 53(1): 105-113.
  47. Nordgren. R. P. 1987. Analysis of high frequency vibration of tension leg platforms. J. of offshore mechanics and arctic Eng. 109: 119-125.
  48. Oriol .R.Rijken,John M.Niedzwecki. 1991. A knowledge Base approach to the design of Tension leg platform. Offshore technology center, 24-100.
  49. S. Dunkerley. 1894. On the whirling and vibration of shafts. Phil. Trans. Royal Society- PartA, 185(1): 279-360.
  50. Sadehi, K. 2007. Offshore and petroleum platforms for Cyprus oil/Gas fields. GAU J. Soc & Appl. Sci., 2(4), 1-16.
  51. Spanos P. D and Agarwal V. K 1984. Response of a Simple Tension Leg Platform Model to Wave Forces Calculated at Displaced Position. J. of Energy Resources Technology. 106: 437-443.
  52. Srinivasan Chandrasekaran, Bhaskar K., Lino Harilal and Brijit, R. 2010b. Dynamic response behavior of multi-legged articulated tower with and without TMD, Proc. International Conf. of Marine Tech. MARTEC-2010., 11-12 Dec, Dhaka, Bangladesh, p.131-136.
  53. Srinivasan Chandrasekaran, Bhaskar, K. and Muhammed Hashim. 2010a. Experimental study on dynamic response behavior of multi-legged articulated tower. Proc. 29th International Conf. on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engg, OMAE 2010, 6-11th June, Shanghai, China.
  54. Srinivasan Chandrasekaran, R. Sundaravadivelu, R. Pannerselvam and S. Madhuri 2011. Experimental investigations of offshore triceratops under regular waves, Proc. 30th International Conf. on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engg, OMAE 2011, 19-24th June, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
  55. Stoke's, G. G., 1880. On the Theory of Oscillatory Waves. Mathematics and Physics Papers, 1: 225-228.
  56. Tabeshpour. M. R, Golafshani. A. A and Seif. M. S 2006. Comprehensive study on the results of tension leg platform responses in random sea. J. of Zhejiang University Science. 7(8): 1305-1317.
  57. Vannucci. P 1996. Simplified optimal design of tension leg platform TLP. Structural optimization. 12: 265-268.
  58. White. N. Charles, Copple. W. Robert and Cunyet Capanoglu 2005. Triceratops: An effective platform for Developing Oil and Gas fields in deep and ultra deep water. Proc. of the fifteenth International Offshore and Polar Eng. Conference, Seoul, Korea, June 19-24, pp 133-139.
  59. White. N. Charles, Copple. W. Robert and Cunyet Capanoglu 2005. Triceratops: An effective platform for Developning Oil and Gas fields in deep and ultra deep water. Proceedings of the fifteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Seoul, Korea, June 19-24, 133-139.
  60. William C. de Boom, Pinkster Jo. A and Peter S. G. Tan 1984. Motion and tether force prediction of a TLP. J. of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Eng. 110(4): 472-486.
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  62. Yan Fa-suo, Zhang Da-gang, Sun Li-Ping and Dai Yang-shan 2009. Stress verification of a TLP under extreme wave environment. J. of Marine science applications. 8: 132-136.
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