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Course Co-ordinated by IIT Madras
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Prof. Parasuraman S
IIT Madras

 

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The present course on 'Electronic materials, devices, and fabrication' is designed to develop an understanding of the materials, devices, and processing techniques used in the current semiconductor industry. The course is geared towards advanced undergraduate and graduate students with a background in Metallurgy, Mechanical, Chemical and Electrical engineering.

The course provides the students with the basic physics behind semiconductor materials, types of semiconductors, and the reason for the dominance of silicon in the electronics industry. The course also covers the basics of devices with emphasis on their electronic characteristics. Optical devices like LEDs, lasers, solar cells, will also be explained. The current manufacturing processes in the silicon based semiconductor industry, starting from silicon wafer production to final IC (integrated circuit) development, will be explained. The focus will be on industry challenges during miniaturization and the role of materials in overcoming the challenges. Along with the lecture notes there will be problem sets to help enumerate the concepts clearly.

Sl. No

Topic

Hours

1.

Introduction to chemical bonding and development of band gap.

1

2.

Introduction and types of semiconductors. Explanation of density of states, Fermi energy, and band occupancy.

2

3.

Problem set on bonding,density of states, and Fermi statistics

1

4.

Intrinsic semiconductors, carrier concentration, mobility, temperature dependence.

2

5.

Problem set on intrinsic semiconductors

1

6.

Extrinsic semiconductors. Dopant types and materials. Conductivity, Fermi energy position,temperature dependence.

3

7.

Problem set on extrinsic semiconductors

1

8.

Metal-semiconductor junctions. Schottky vs. Ohmic junctions. Band gap diagrams. I-V characteristics

1

9.

Problem set on metal-semiconductor junctions

1

10.

p-n junctions. Equlibrium and under bias ( forward and reverse). Band diagrams. I-V characteristics. Junction breakdown. Heterojunctions

3

11.

Problem set on pn junctions

1

12.

Transistors-BJT,JFET,MOSFET. Transistor action. Basics of BJT and JFET.Channel formation in MOSFET. I-V behavior.Depletion and inversion layer calculation.

2

13.

Problem set on transistors

1

14.

Optoelectronic materials. Introduction. LEDs,LASERs,photodetectors,solar cells.

5

15.

Problem set on optical properties.

1

16.

Problem set on optoelectronic devices

1

17.

Introduction to semiconductor manufacturing. History,overview of process flow, manufacturing goals. Scaling.

1

18.

Wafer manufacturing. Si ingot preparation. Poly to single crystal conversion. Czochralski vs. float zone method.

1

19.

IC device manufacturing overview. Thermal oxidation. Doping. Lithography. Etching and growth. Metallization and growth.

6

20.

Process and device evaluation. Yield monitoring and control.

2

21.

Clean room design. Contamination control.

1

22.

Devices and IC formation. IC circuit logic and packaging

2

Total

40

 

  1. Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, S.O. Kasap, 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill Education (India) Pvt. Ltd., 2007.
  2. Semiconductor devices: Physics and Technology, S.M. Sze, 2nd edition, Wiley, 2008.
  3. VLSI technology, S.M. Sze, 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill Education (India) Pvt. Ltd., 2003.
  4. Solid State Electronic Devices, B.G. Streetman and S. Banerjee, 6th edition, PHI Learning, 2009.
  5. Introduction to solid state physics, C. Kittel, 8th edition, Wiley, 2012.
  6. Microchip Fabrication, Peter van Zant, 5th edition, McGraw-Hill, 2004.
  7. Fundamentals of semiconductor manufacturing and process control, G.S. May and C.J. Spanos, Wiley-IEEE press, 2006.


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