Scope of optical metallographic studies: Image formation, resolving power, numerical aperture, empty magnification, depth of focus, components of microscopes, important lens defects and their correction, principles of phase contrast, interference and polarized light microscopy, elements of quantitative metallography and image processing, sample preparation techniques.
X Ray diffraction and their applications: Production and properties of X-ray, absorption of X-rays and filters, X-ray - diffraction directions, diffraction methods. X-ray - diffraction intensities, factors affecting intensity, ‘structure factor’ calculations for simple, body centered, face centered, diamond cubic and hexagonal crystal structures. Working principles of diffractometer, counters and cameras. Indexing of XRD patterns. Precise lattice parameter determination, Chemical analysis by X-ray diffraction & fluorescence, determination of particle size and micro/macro strains.
Studies by electron microscopes: Construction and working principles of transmissionelectron microscopes. Image formation, resolving power, magnification, depth of focus, elementary treatment of image contrasts, important lens defects and their correction. Bright field and dark field images. Stereographic projection and their applications. Formation of selectedarea diffraction patterns, reciprocal lattice and Ewald sphere construction, indexing of diffraction patterns, sample preparation techniques. Scanning electron microscope; construction, interaction of electrons with matter, modes of operation, image formation of plane and fracturedsurfaces.
Fundamentals of optics
Optical microscope and its instrumental details
Variants in the optical microscopes and image formation
'Fundamentals of light microscopy and electronic imaging' Douglas B. Murphy, 2001, Wiley-Liss, Inc. USA
'Encyclopedia of Materials Characterization, Surfaces, Interfaces, Thin Films,' Editors C. Richard Brundle, Charles A. Evans, Jr., Shaun Wilson, Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston London Oxford Singapore Sydney Toronto Wellington
'Physical metallurgy and advanced materials' R.E. Smallman and A.H.W. Ngan, Seventh edition, 2007, Elsevier Ltd., USA.