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Course Co-ordinated by IIT Madras
Dr. S. Sankaran
IIT Madras


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Scope of optical metallographic studies: Image formation, resolving power, numerical aperture, empty magnification, depth of focus, components of microscopes, important lens defects and their correction, principles of phase contrast, interference and polarized light microscopy, elements of quantitative metallography and image processing, sample preparation techniques.

X Ray diffraction and their applications: Production and properties of X-ray, absorption of X-rays and filters, X-ray - diffraction directions, diffraction methods. X-ray - diffraction intensities, factors affecting intensity, ‘structure factor’ calculations for simple, body centered, face centered, diamond cubic and hexagonal crystal structures. Working principles of diffractometer, counters and cameras. Indexing of XRD patterns. Precise lattice parameter determination, Chemical analysis by X-ray diffraction & fluorescence, determination of particle size and micro/macro strains.

Studies by electron microscopes: Construction and working principles of transmission electron microscopes. Image formation, resolving power, magnification, depth of focus, elementary treatment of image contrasts, important lens defects and their correction. Bright field and dark field images. Stereographic projection and their applications. Formation of selected area diffraction patterns, reciprocal lattice and Ewald sphere construction, indexing of diffraction patterns, sample preparation techniques. Scanning electron microscope; construction, interaction of electrons with matter, modes of operation, image formation of plane and fractured surfaces.

Sl. No


Module 1

  1. Fundamentals of optics
  2. Optical microscope and its instrumental details
  3. Variants in the optical microscopes and image formation

Module 2

  1. Phase contrast, Polarised light, Differential interference contrast, Fluorescence microscopy
  2. Sample preparation and applications

Module 3

  1. Introduction to Scanning electron microscopy
  2. Instrumental details and image formation
  3. Various imaging techniques and spectroscopy
  4. Sample preparation and Applications      

Module 4

  1. Introduction to X-ray diffraction
  2. Instrumental details and analysis of XRD pattern
  3. Residual stress measurements

Module 5

  1. Introduction to Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
  2. Science of Imaging and diffraction
  3. TEM instrumental details and variants in imaging techniques
  4. Sample preparation procedures and instruments for various materials


  • Materials Science or Materials Engineering

  1. Spencer, Michael, Fundamentals of Light Microscopy, Cambridge University Press,1982.

  2. David B. Williams, C. Barry Carter, " Transmission Electron Microscopy: A Textbook for Materials Science" ,Springer, pub. 2009.

  3. Joseph I Goldstein, Dale E Newbury, Patrick Echlin and David C Joy, "Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis", 3rd Edition , 2005.

  4. B.D.Cullity and S.R.Stock, "Elements of X-Ray Diffraction" Third edition, Prentice Hall, NJ , 2001.

  5. G.W.H. Hohne, W.F. Hemminger, H.-J. Flammersheim , "Differential Scanning Calorimetry", Springer, 2nd rev. a. enlarged ed., 2003.

  6. 'Fundamentals of light microscopy and electronic imaging'  Douglas B. Murphy, 2001, Wiley-Liss, Inc. USA

  7. 'Encyclopedia of Materials Characterization, Surfaces, Interfaces, Thin Films,' Editors C. Richard Brundle, Charles A. Evans, Jr., Shaun Wilson, Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston London Oxford Singapore Sydney Toronto Wellington

  8. 'Physical metallurgy and advanced materials' R.E. Smallman and A.H.W. Ngan, Seventh edition, 2007, Elsevier Ltd., USA.


  10. Electron optical applications in materials science (McGraw-Hill series in materials science and engineering) by Lawrence Eugene Murr.

  11.  Practical Electron Microscopy in Materials Science, J.W. Edington, 1976, 4 volumes  reprinted by Tech Books, Herndon, USA.

  12. Transmission Electron Microscopy and Diffractometry of Materials, B.Fultz, and J.M.Howe, Second Edition, 2002, Springer, Germany.

  13. Electron Diffraction in the Transmission Electron Microscope, P.E. Champness, 2001, Garland Science, USA.

  1. Microscopy Books:

  2. Electron Microscopy:

  3. Thermal Analysis Excellence:

  • Literatures on equipments used for characterisation.

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