
Overview of power electronic converters 
1. 
Electronic switches. 
2. 
DC  DC converters. 
3. 
DC  AC voltage source inverter. 
4. 
Voltage source and current source inverters. 
5. 
Multilevel inverter  diode clamped inverter. 
6. 
Multilevel inverter  flying capacitor inverter. 

Applications of voltage source converter 
7. 
Applications of voltage source converter – I (motor drives, active rectifiers). 
8. 
Applications of voltage source converter – II (reactive current and harmonic compensation). 

Purpose of pulsewidth modulation (PWM) 
9. 
Review of Fourier series. 
10. 
Harmonic voltages and their undesirable effects. 

Pulsewidth modulation at low switching frequency 
11. 
Low switching frequency operation of a VSI – I (square wave operation, one switching angle per quarter). 
12. 
Low switching frequency operation of a VSI – II (Two switching angles per quarter). 
13. 
Selective harmonic elimination and THD optimized PWM. 

Trianglecomparison based PWM 
14. 
Sinetriangle modulation. 
15. 
Third harmonic injection PWM (THIPWM). 
16. 
Busclamping PWM  I. 
17. 
Busclamping PWM  II. 

Space vectorbased PWM 
18. 
Concept of space vector. 
19. 
Conventional space vector PWM and busclamping PWM. 
20. 
A unified perspective of trianglecomparison and space vector based PWM. 
21. 
Advanced busclamping PWM. 

Analysis of line current ripple 
22. 
Transformation from stationary reference frame to synchronously revolving dq reference frame. 
23. 
Voltsecond balance and instantaneous error voltage. 
24. 
Calculation of RMS line current ripple. 
25. 
Space vectorbased hybrid PWM for reduced line current ripple. 

Analysis of dc link current 
26. 
Inverter state and dc link current. 
27. 
Average and RMS values of dc link current. 

Analysis of torque ripple 
28. 
Calculation of harmonic torques and RMS torque ripple. 
29. 
Hybrid PWM techniques to reduce ripple torque. 

Inverter loss 
30. 
Evaluation of conduction loss. 
31. 
Dependence of switching loss on power factor and modulation method. 
32. 
PWM techniques for reduced switching loss. 

Effect of inverter deadtime 
33. 
Effect of deadtime with continuous modulation. 
34. 
Effect of deadtime with discontinuous or busclamping PWM. 

Overmodulation 
35. 
Perphase approach to overmodulation. 
36. 
Space vector approach to overmodulation. 
37. 
A perspective from the synchronously revolving dq reference frame. 

PWM for multilevel inverters 
38. 
Extension of sinetriangle modulation to threelevel inverters. 
39. 
Extension of conventional space vector modulation to threelevel inverters. 
40. 
Analysis of line current ripple and torque ripple. 