**Section 1 Introduction to Computer Graphics **

Overview of Computer Graphics, Computer Graphics Application and Software, Description of some graphics devices, Input Devices for Operator Interaction, Active and Passive Graphics Devices, Display Technologies, Storage Tube Graphics Displays, Calligraphic Refresh Graphics Displays, Raster Refresh (Raster-Scan) Graphics Displays, Cathode Ray Tube Basics, Color CRT Raster Scan Basics, Video Basics, The Video Controller, Random-Scan Display Processor, LCD displays.

**Section 2 Two-Dimensional Transformations**

Transformations and Matrices, Transformation Conventions, 2D Transformations, Homogeneous Coordinates and Matrix Representation of 2D Transformations, Translations and Homogeneous Coordinates, Rotation, Reflection, Scaling, Combined Transformation, Transformation of Points, Transformation of The Unit Square, Solid Body Transformations, Rotation About an Arbitrary Point, Reflection through an Arbitrary Line, A Geometric Interpretation of Homogeneous Coordinates, The Window-to-Viewport Transformations.

**Section 3 Three-Dimensional Transformations**

Introduction, Three-Dimensional Scaling, Three-Dimensional Shearing, Three-Dimensional Rotation, Three-Dimensional Reflection, Three-Dimensional Translation, Multiple Transformation, Rotation about an Arbitrary Axis in Space, Reflection through an Arbitrary Plane, Matrix Representation of 3D Transformations, Composition of 3D Transformations, Affine and Perspective Geometry, Perspective Transformations, Techniques for Generating Perspective Views, Vanishing Points, the Perspective Geometry and camera models, Orthographic Projections, Axonometric Projections, Oblique Projections, View volumes for projections.

**Section 4 Viewing in 3D**

Stages in 3D viewing, Canonical View Volume (CVV), Specifying an Arbitrary 3D View, Examples of 3D Viewing, The Mathematics of Planar Geometric Projections, Combined transformation matrices for projections and viewing, Coordinate Systems and matrices, camera model and viewing pyramid.

**Section 5 Scan conversion – lines, circles and Ellipses; Filling polygons and clipping algorithm**s

Scan Converting Lines, Mid-point criteria, Problems of Aliasing, end-point ordering and clipping lines, Scan Converting Circles, Scan Converting Ellipses, Filling Polygons, edge data structure, Clipping Lines algorithms– Cyrus-Beck, Cohen-Sutherland and Liang-Barsky, Clipping Polygons, problem with multiple components.

**Section 6 Solid Modeling **

Representing Solids, Regularized Boolean Set Operations, Primitive Instancing, Sweep Representations, Spatial-Partitioning Representations - Octree representation, B-Reps, Constructive Solid Geometry, Comparison of Representations.

**Section 7 Visible-Surface Determination**

Techniques for efficient Visible-Surface Algorithms, Categories of algorithms, Back face removal, The z-Buffer Algorithm, Scan-line method, Painter’s algorithms (depth sorting), Area sub-division method, BSP trees, Visible-Surface Ray Tracing, comparison of the methods.

**Section 8 Illumination and Shading**

Illumination and Shading Models for Polygons, Reflectance properties of surfaces, Ambient, Specular and Diffuse reflections, Atmospheric attenutation, Phong’s model, Gouraud shading, some examples.

**Section 9 Plane Curves and Surfaces**

Curve Representation, Nonparametric Curves, Parametric Curves, Parametric Representation of a Circle, Parametric Representation of an Ellipse, Parametric Representation of a Parabola, Parametric Representation of a Hyperbola, A Procedure for using Conic Sections, The General Conic Equation; Representation of Space Curves, Cubic Splines, , Bezier Curves, B-spline Curves, B-spline Curve Fit, B-spline Curve Subdivision, Parametric Cubic Curves, Quadric Surfaces. Bezier Surfaces.

**Section 10 Graphics Programming using OPENGL**

Why OpenGL, Features in OpenGL, OpenGL operations, Abstractions in OpenGL – GL, GLU & GLUT, 3D viewing pipeline, viewing matrix specifications, a few examples and demos of OpenGL programs.

**Section 11 Miscellaneous topics**

Why Realism?, Aliasing and Antialiasing, texture bump mapping, Animation methods, methods of controlling animation, soft modeling of objects, image based rendering, Fundamental Difficulties.

**Section 12 Image Manipulation and Storage **

What is an Image? Digital image file formats, Image compression standard – JPEG, Image Processing - Digital image enhancement, contrast stretching, Histogram Equalization, smoothing and median Filtering.

**References:**

*1. J. D. Foley, A. Van Dam, S. K. Feiner and J. F. Hughes, Computer Graphics - Principles and Practice, Second Edition in C, Pearson Education, 2003. *

2. D. Hearn and M. Pauline Baker, Computer Graphics (C Version), Pearson Education, 2nd Edition, 2004.

3. D. F. Rogers and J. A. Adams, Mathematical Elements for Computer Graphics, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill International Edition, 1990.

*4. F. S. Hill Jr., Computer Graphics using OpenGL, Pearson Education, 2003. *