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Review of Fundamentals: Concepts from Fluid Mechanics, Basic Thermodynamic Relations

Compressible flow: Concept of Waves in fluid, Mach waves, Compression waves, Expansion waves

Basic Flow features: Isentropic flow, Shock waves, Stationary and Moving Shocks, Oblique Shocks, Bow Shocks, Expansion Fans

Example flows: Flow around bodies, Shock expansion method for flow over airfoils.

Flow Through a nozzle: Convergent Nozzles, CD Nozzles, Exit Pressure variation vs Stagnation pressure variation.

Oblique shock wave reflections, Jet flows Under- and over-expanded flows Shear layers

Other Non-isentropic flows

Flow with Friction, Friction choking

Flow with heat addition, Thermal choking

Supersonic combustion

Experimental Methods

Shock Tube, Supersonic Wind tunnel, Flow visualization, Supersonic Probes.

Methods of characteristics. Design of nozzles, External flow around bodies

Experimental characteristics of airfoils in compressible flow.

Unsteady flows.

 

S.No

Topic

Sub topics

Number of hours

1

Introductory concenpts

Compressibility
Thermodynamic concepts
Conservation equations
Communicatio in gases
Stagnation state

8.5

2

One Dimensional Flow

Pressure waves in gases
Communication in gases
Stagnation state
Differential equations for 1D flow
Isentropic Flow with aera variations
Numerical examples

1.5

3

Normal Shocks

Normal Shock Concept
Normal Shock relations
Moving normal shocks
Numerical Examples (stationary &moving)

7.5

4

Oblique shocks

Concept and theory
Oblique Shock relations
Property variations

3.5

5

Other shocks

Detached Shocks
Shock Reflections
Numerical Examples
Shock-Shock Interactions

1.5

6

Expansions

1-D Expansion wave
Expansion Fan
Prandtl Meyer Function
Smooth expansions/compressions
Numerical Examples

2

7

Shock Expansion Theory

Theory, Examples and its applications

1.5

8

Nozzle flow

Quasi-1D flow with area variations,
Geometric Choking
Numerical Examples
Divergent Nozzles
Convergent-Divergent Nozzles
Numerical Examples
Multiple Choking points

5

9

Supersonic Jet

Jet structure
Numerical Examples and Supersonic Shear layers

3

10

Non-isentropic flows

Crocco's Theorem
Fanno Flow
Numerical Examples
Rayleigh Flow
Numerical Examples
Various Choking mechanisms,
Ramjets and scramjets

7

11

Experimental setups

Shock Tubes
Compressibe flow facilities
Measurement Techniques
Experiment Design

5

12

Flow visualisation

Schlieren, Shadowgraph, Interferometry

3

13

2D Method of Charachteristics

Characteristics concept
Characteristic directions; and constitutive relations,
Subroutines,Marching techniques,
Example simulations

3

14

Summary

 

0.5

15

Unsteady flow phenomena

 

1.5

 

Total Hours

54

.

 

  1. Basic Fluid mechanics, its governing equations and their implications.


  1. Liepmann, H.W., and Roshko, A. Elements of Gas Dynamics Dover Publications, Inc., Mineola, NY, USA.

  2. Oosthuizen, P.H., and Carscallen, W.E., Compressible Fluid Flow McGraw-Hill international editions, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,Singapore.

  3. Babu V. Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics Ane Books India, Chennai.

  4. Chapman A.J. and Walker W.F. Introductory Gas Dynamics Holt, Reinhart and Winston, Inc. NY, USA.



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