Tutorial 2

 

In this tutorial your first task will be to design the conveyance system for the water from the intake point in Bithooor to the IIT Kanpur campus. The level of the pumps in the water intake structure in Bithoor is 124 m. The intake point is situated within the river, at an elevation of 119 m. The distance between the pump-house and the raw water storage tanks in IIT K campus is 24 Km. Ground level at the vicinity of the raw water storage tanks is 129 m. A pictorial depiction of the above description is shown in Figure 1.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Pipeline

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Figure 1. Schematic of the Conveyance system

 

Other relevant information required for designing the conveyance system are as follows:

 

        Four pumps and pipelines of equal capacity will be employed for pumping the water. However the capacities of the pump should be such that three pumps working together shall be able to pump the required volume of water. In other words, one pump and pipeline will constantly be on standby in rotation.

 

        The pressure head at the end of the pipeline should be 1 m. Water from the supply pipe will fall freely into raw water reservoirs, from which it will be pumped further into the treatment plant.

 

        The raw water reservoirs will consist of three open water tanks at ground level, with a capacity to hold seven days of water supply.

 

        Design will require sizing of the pipes, pumps and the raw water reservoir.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The second task in this tutorial will be to assess the Ganga water characteristics, as given in Table 1 for the wet and dry seasons. Based on this assessment, prepare a brief report on the water characteristics and the type and nature of treatment required to improve water quality such that it is suitable for supply as potable water to the campus community.

 

Table 1. Average Water Quality Characteristics of River Ganga at the Water Intake Point in the Dry and Wet Seasons.

 

Sl. No.

 

 

Parameter

Desired Maximum Concentration in Treated Water

Average

Concentration in Raw Water

From Nov. to May

Average

Concentration in Raw Water

From June to October

1

Turbidity

2.5 NTU

50 NTU

150 NTU

 

2

 

Colour

 

5 Units (Pt-Co Scale)

 

20 Units (Pt-Co Scale)

 

3 Units (Pt-Co Scale)

 

3

 

PH

 

7.0 8.5

 

7.8

 

7.5

 

4

 

Alkalinity

 

No Limit

 

40 mg/L as CaCO3

 

35 mg/L as CaCO3

 

5

 

TDS

 

500 mg/L

 

450 mg/L

 

350 mg/L

 

6

 

Total Hardness

 

200 mg/L as CaCO3

 

60 mg/L as CaCO3

 

40 mg/L as CaCO3

 

7

 

Calcium Hardness

 

200 mg/L as CaCO3

 

30 mg/L as CaCO3

 

25 mg/L as CaCO3

 

8

 

Chloride

 

500 mg/L

 

100 mg/L

 

75 mg/L

 

9

 

Sulfate

 

500 mg/L

 

50 mg/L

 

40 mg/L

 

10

 

Fluoride

 

1.0 mg/L

 

0.7 mg/L

 

0.5 mg/L

 

11

 

Nitrate

 

45 mg/L

 

12 mg/L

 

7 mg/L

 

12

 

Ammonia

 

0.1 mg/L

 

0.5 mg/L

 

0.2 mg/L

 

13

 

Iron (II)

 

0.1 mg/L

 

ND

 

ND

 

14

 

Manganese (II)

 

0.05 mg/L

 

ND

 

ND

 

Sl. No.

 

 

Parameter

Desired Maximum Concentration in Treated Water

Average

Concentration in Raw Water

From Nov. to May

Average

Concentration in Raw Water

From June to October

15

Cyanide

0.1 mg/L

ND

ND

 

16

 

Chromium (VI)

 

0.1 mg/L

 

ND

 

ND

 

17

 

MPN

 

<1 Organisms/100 mL

 

106 Org./100 mL

 

105 Org./100 mL

 

18

a.

 

b.

 

c.

 

 

DDT

 

Aldrin

 

Heptachlor

 

 

10 mg/L

 

10 mg/L

 

10 mg/L

 

 

ND

 

ND

 

ND

 

 

ND

 

ND

 

ND

 

19

a.

 

b.

 

c.

 

 

Vinyl Chloride

 

Tetrachloroethylene

 

Trichloroethylene

 

 

10 mg/L

 

10 mg/L

 

10 mg/L

 

 

ND

 

ND

 

ND

 

 

ND

 

ND

 

ND

 

20

 

BOD5

 

< 1 mg/L

 

6 mg/L

 

3 mg/L

 

 

ND: Not Detected